Santiago de Cuba: The Birthplace Of Cuba and Why I Now Support Communism

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Santiago de Cuba: The Birthplace Of Cuba and Why I Now Support Communism

Cuba is split into two: The Occident and The Orient. Most people will go to the Occident, such as Havana, Vinales, Varadero, or Trinidad and never step foot into the Orient. If you’ve never been to the Orient, you know NOTHING of Cuba. NOTHING. HUGE MISTAKE. I’ll tell you why…

8 Must Sees In Santiago de Cuba

A Short History Of Santiago De Cuba

All of Cuba’s history seemingly starts in Santiago de Cuba. When Christopher Columbus “discovered” Cuba, the Spaniards conquered and ruled Cuba for centuries, bringing slaves to work the sugar, coffee, and chocolate plantations. Their presence is apparent with Spanish style cathedrals in the center of every city.

During the Spanish-Cuban war, with the help of the United States, Cuba defeated the Spanish. There are statues and memorials dedicated to this cause. Especially notable is Jose Marti, famous poet, and basically father of Cuba. At the time, Cuba was still run on slavery by Spaniards who also treated Cubans very differently. Jose Marti had the idea of a free, multiracial Cuba. He died in the first battle of war, on a white horse, with his face toward the sun. You can see a statue of this reenactment in the Plaza de la Revolucion in Santiago de Cuba.

1. The Best Museum in Cuba Is Moncada Barracks

Following the story of the revolution, in my opinion, is the best museum on the revolution in all of Cuba. The Moncada Barracks are about a 25-minute uphill walk from the center of town, but well worth the effort.

The stunning all yellow building used to be a military compound and arsenal, but has now been turned into a school with 2,000 students. There is a small museum inside where a gorgeous woman with dark skin and sparkling green eyes was there to greet me and single-handedly educated me on the birthplace of Cuba’s modern-day communism.

santiago de cuba-Moncada Barracks with Bullet Holes

The museum is on the side where you see the façade littered with bullet holes. Be aware these bullet holes are actually fake and were carved out after the Communist Revolution in memorium. The only real bullet holes are on the pole in front of the building.

Afro-Cubans In the Fight For Cuba

The museum starts with what life was like before the revolution. Santiago de Cuba used to be a slave port during the Spanish rule. It was also where rich Haitians settled after fleeing the Haitian revolution, bringing Haitian slaves with them. Because of this, the east side of Cuba has a higher population of Afro-Cubans than the west.

Two fighters are highlighted as men who fought against racism because of this history, one being Guillermo Moncada, who is an Afro-Cuban hero in the Cuban War of Independence because he put an end to the slave hunting business of Miguel Cespedes. The building is named after him. The Negro Rebellion is briefly covered, where an army of Afro-Cubans rebelled against slavery and the sugar cane industry.

santiago de cuba-woman standing in front of Moncada Barracks

A Free Cuba Was Dominated By The United States

The museum shows the first president, Tomas Estrada Palma, of a free Cuba after the Spanish-Cuban war. However, that president was portrayed as leaving Cuba in a bad state with many starving, without education, and without medical care. When he died he left no successor. So Cuba was in complete control by the United States.

The United States backed Fulgencio Batista who then ruled more as an authoritarian ruler rather than an elected democratic leader of a free Cuba. There are differing accounts of what happened, but both the museum and other accounts confirm that he exploited Cuba’s natural resources to foreign investment, carried out wide-scale violence, torture, and public execution. Prostitution, drugs, and gambling were prevalent during his reign.

The Rise of Fidel Castro

The museum pans over to young Fidel who was the illegitimate child of a wealthy land owner who took his maid as a mistress (and eventually married). He went to school in Havana and became a lawyer. During university he participated in protests and riots, and started forming his opinions on the corruption in government. He started drawing political cartoons and publishing them in a magazine under the name “Alejandro.”

Then you see a 3-D demonstration of what started the revolution. On the street in front of the museum is where the first battle of the Revolution started…and ended within 15 minutes. It took place on the 26th of July, which is clearly marked on the building.

Santiago de Cuba-Moncada Barracks with number 26 at top
26th of July, the start of the revolution.

The First Battle Of The Cuban Revolution

Fidel chose the 26th of July because the 25th of July marked the largest party for Santiago de Cuba’s Carnival. Thinking that most of the soldiers would be drunk, he arranged a group of poor farmers and students who had very little combat experience to attack the barracks in order to take the machine guns stored inside. The plan was to surround the barracks with his revolucionarios disguised in soldier’s uniforms, and then attack from all sides. However, the revolucionarios, were quickly found out because their shoes were dress shoes, not boots, and gave them away.

Santiago de Cuba-the dress shoes worn by the soldiers
Wrong shoes.

When Fidel and his group tried to storm the building from the other side, they jumped out of the car prematurely and were all shot down from soldiers stationed on the roof. In 15 minutes, the battle was over, resulting in many deaths. Fidel escaped to the mountains and hid in the forest.

In order to make an example of this failed revolution, Batista took poor boys off of the street and for every one of his soldiers that died, he killed 20 poor boys and arranged them in the halls of the Moncada Barracks. A photographer then took pictures and Fidel was portrayed as a murderer, even though the building was never penetrated.

Fidel was caught by a lieutenant who saved Fidel’s life by publicly turning him in. Without this publicity, Fidel would have been quietly murdered. There is a bust of what Fidel calls his savior in the museum.

Fidel then went to jail and his mugshots are on the wall. When it was time for re-elections for Batista, in order to get the poor vote, he freed Fidel. Fidel then fled to Mexico and Batista thought that was the end of that. He then printed on newspapers that “Fidel is dead,” even though Fidel was very much alive and had left to gather more support.

Santiago de Cuba-newspaper saying Fidel Is Dead

Fidel’s Return

Tracing Fidel’s footsteps from the Gulf of Mexico to New York and back, he gathered 82 men in Mexico–including Che Guevara–to return to Cuba and fight for the revolution. However, instead of immediately storming anyone, he created a camp where he trained many Cuban soldiers in the art of warfare and how to use weapons, which were bought in the United States.

At this camp, he also established his idea of a perfect society. School was available to everyone for free, as was medicine and medical care. Many women were involved in the revolution, hiding guns and medicine in their skirts in order to support the cause. Those women are highlighted in the museum as well.

Eventually, Fidel struck and conquered the Orient first and his military tactics are documented. Also on display are Batista’s torture chamber and torture tools, such as eye gaugers, tongue cutters, fingernail rippers, and whips made of cow bones.

Santiago de Cuba-Batista Torture Chambers, room with bars
Batista’s torture chamber, right next to his office.

Fidel made good on his promise and turned the military barracks into a free school where uniforms are handed out for free. And medical care is also free to Cuban citizens.

Accessing The Museum

The Moncada Barracks museum opens at 9AM, costs 2CUC for foreigners and 10 pesos Cubano for Cuban citizens. If you’d like a guide, whom I highly recommend, the cost is 5CUC. The tour I had was completely in Spanish and I forgot to ask if they had one in English.

2. Follow The Footsteps Of The Revolution To Fidel’s Grave

You can follow the revolution by visiting the place where Fidel trained the soldiers and the Gran Piedra where he hid out after the failed revolution attempt. (I did not visit either.)

Santa Ifigenia Cementary Is Where Fidel Is Buried

However, I did go see where Fidel was buried. Being in Cuba during the death of Fidel really changed my perspective of everything I had ever learned about him. You can read my account here.   Santa Ifigenia Cementary is where Fidel is buried, but all you have to say is Cemetario de Fidel and everyone knows what you’re talking about.

It is probably one of the most beautiful cemeteries I’ve ever been to. Fidel’s resting place is marked with a large stone with buckets of flowers in front. It is heavily guarded and there is a ceremony that takes place every day. The burial place of one of the original fighters of the revolution are signified by a July 26th flag next to the grave.

You can also see many other people who were buried here, including Emilio Bacardi, the founder of Bacardi rum. It was super interesting to see so many foreigners buried here from when Cuba used to be owned by 70% foreign investment. The grounds are absolutely stunning and worth the trip in and of itself. It costs 1CUC to get there by bicitaxi.

Santiago de Cuba-a large stone grave of Fidel's tombstone
The large monument in the back is the resting place of Jose Marti.

3. Check Out Santiago de Cuba’s Rum and Beer Factory

Fabrica de Ron and Fabrica de Cerveza y Marta are the first rum and beer factories in Cuba. Although they are still operating, the museums and tours were closed due to the hurricane that hit in 2016. But don’t be sad, right in front of the Malecon is a brewery named Cervezaria Puerto de Rey where they have two types of locally brewed beers for 1CUC.

4. Santiago de Cuba Has A Better Malecon Than Havana

The Malecon or seaside boulevard is really nice at dusk; decorated with lights and a large CUBA sign for taking photos.

Santiago de Cuba-sign that says Cuba with woman in front on Malecon

5. Explore Santiago de Cuba’s Surrounding Villages By Boat

Along the Malecon is a boat that leaves at 10AM and 3PM everyday and costs 40 Cuban Pesos or ~2CUC to board. This boat takes you on a 2-hour tour of the bay and even includes a small meal of fried fish and sausage (it looked nasty, I didn’t eat it). You’ll need to reserve 1 hour ahead of time. Santiago is so hot, the breeze is worth the 2CUC. Even more, they sell beers on board, play salsa music the entire time, and you get to see the Spanish forts, Cuba’s oil refinery, little fishing villages, and what life is like outside of the city.

6. Visit Fancy Buildings In Santiago de Cuba’s Center

Within the center of Parque Cesped, or main center of town, is Museo de Emilio Bacardi. The museum holds the art pieces of Emilio Bacardi and a mummy in the basement. On the top floor is a library and the middle is perfectly preserved porcelain and dance hall. It is free to enter and definitely worth 20 minutes of your time. There is also a free-guided tour if you ask for one. Unfortunately only the second floor was open during my trip due to the hurricane, but it was still worth it.

The building itself used to be a French club and then a matrimonial hall. After the Revolution it was used as a museum. The porcelain comes from all over the world, and are marked with initials of the rich people who used the hall for wedding celebrations.

After leaving the museum, I started to notice that on various gates and engraved on the sidewalks around the city were the same initials in the same style. It was then I realized these people, at one point, owned a lot of property in the area. So don’t forget to always look down!

Santiago de Cuba-Emilio Bacardi Museum with heavily decorated ceilings

You can also visit the Casa of Diego Velasquez. (I did not. It was always closed when I went.It’s the oldest house in all of Cuba.

Within Parque Cesped is also an art gallery called Galeria de Arte Oriente with original paintings for sale, some starting at only 6CUC! There are also many other historical buildings lining the park that are worth a visit if you have the time.

Santiago de Cuba-blue Cathedral in parque cesped

7. Salsa In Santiago de Cuba At Casa La Trova

The nightlife was not active when we were there, however it was not a weekend. But the main club is Casa la Trova, which costs 5CUC to enter.

8. Eat All The Creole Food!

But the real treat of Santiago is this restaurant next to the church. You are 100% basic if you don’t visit Thomas Yadira Restaurant. It is the best creole seafood I’ve ever had in all of Cuba. I pretty much ate there everyday, they knew my name by the end of it. An entire plate of creole seafood paella including crab, shrimp, and lobster was only 6.50CUC for two people.

Santiago de Cuba-dish of Creole Paella

Where To Stay In Santiago de Cuba

The best places to stay are in casa particulares, which are family homes that either have an extra bedroom or separate private apartment for guests. They range in price from 10CUC-35CUC. The money you pay to a casa particular goes directly to the people who own the house, rather than to the government (although, Cubans do have to pay a tax for owning a casa particular.)

Booking in advance isn’t necessary. You can walk the streets and just look for a white sign with this symbol on the outside, which marks this house is legally for rent.

santiago de cuba- a sign signfying rent in cuba

You can literally just walk into one and see if they have availability. If someone tells you that you can stay in their house without the sign, it is illegal and they can be fined. Also if you’d like to book in advance, some casas are listed on Airbnb, although not as many in The Orient. You can also check TripAdvisor for the best casa particulares in the city.

Santiago de Cuba-Colorful Streets

I stayed in Karel’s Casa is a 2-bedroom AirBnB for $15 with in-house wifi (you still have to bring your own wifi card that you can buy on the street), hot water, AC, and 4 blocks from the center. Karel was like a living vampire. She never leaves her house because she’s allergic to the sun. She will even open the door and step aside so the light doesn’t touch her. Because she never leaves her house, she is always on call, incredibly helpful, and very accommodating. For the price, it was more than we expected.

If you’re looking for something nicer, there are many options along every street.

How to Get to Santiago de Cuba

There are six modes of transportation to Santiago:

  • The easiest way is purchasing a direct flight.
  • The second easiest is taking a direct flight from any major airport within Cuba. From Havana, the flights are around $99-150 each way. Terminal 1 is for domestic flights and it is recommended to show up two hours before any flight. Even though your flight may be 45 minutes to 2 hours, you should allow around 8 hours for delays and cancellations. (Yes, for real, although mine was exactly on time. Still, I gave myself an entire day for travel and didn’t book my domestic flights on the same day as I arrived.) The planes are major throwbacks.
  • The third easiest is taking a Viazul bus for 51CUC each way. The travel time is more or less 17 hours.
  • The third way to travel to Santiago de Cuba is to rent a car. Better to reserve ahead of time online. No guarantees on the condition of the car, nor the condition of the road you’re traveling. Ain’t no Triple A in Cuba.
  • The final two modes are the true Cuban ways to travel: by train or by camion.
    • The train is about 35CUC for foreigners and 35CUP for Cubans. I was strongly advised away from the train due to an infestation of roaches even though it was overnight. (I cannot confirm this, but I wasn’t about to try. Anyway the train station is closed until Summer 2018.) 
    • The camion is a truck that picks up at every city (you’ll probably need to speak a bit of Spanish to find out where the stops are) and will cost you 12CUC from Havana to Santiago de Cuba. The trip is about the same time as the bus except a lot more uncomfortable since you’ll be stuffed between cargo and other people.
Santiago de Cuba-people getting transported by bus
The camions

Disclaimer: While I’m all about a local experience, I ain’t about that camion life. I could probably do it for 3 hours, not 17 hours, so I took a flight. I can’t speak on any of the other modes of transport, this is just what I found doing research on how to get there.

Arriving in Santiago de Cuba

Upon landing in Santiago de Cuba, while the taxi men will try to say $10, you should pay maximum $5 for a taxi. You can change your money at the bank in the center of Parque Cesped. I changed mine in Havana airport before leaving to Santiago de Cuba.

Santiago de Cuba-Malecon a nice boardwalk with lights
Santiago de Cuba Malecon

Life and Culture of Santiago de Cuba

Santiago used to be the capitol of Cuba before it was replaced by Havana. Let me just say this, SANTIAGO DE CUBA BEATS HAVANA BY A LONG SHOT. In my opinion. From history to hygiene, Santiago has it made.

Before coming, Santiago was described to me as run down, poor, and untrustworthy. Habaneros kept warning me, saying Santiago was so far from the capitol, they didn’t have any money so theft was prevalent. To my surprise, being greeted with clean streets, vibrant buildings, stunning French and Spanish architecture, all with an Afro-Cuban feel, was the best “let-down” ever.

Santiago de Cuba-Streets with people walking

Firstly, it is undeniable the similarity to Cap Haitian. Being so close to Haiti, (actually closer to Haiti than Havana), and being populated by Haitians after the Haitian revolution, I expected there to be some resemblance, but not an exact replica. The French Rococo style and balconied buildings painted in the signature greens, blues, yellows, and pinks, of the Caribbean, resembled those lining the streets in Haiti.

Secondly, while Santiago does have a long way to go in that there were decrepit houses made of wood with people living by lantern, and many homes had bars on their windows, I wouldn’t say it is any worse than what I’ve seen in Havana. At least here, the streets are paved with little to no trash comparatively to the falling buildings and wild animals running around Havana. The stores are bustling and full of produce and clothing, which is not common in other cities such as Vinales or even Havana where food shortages are often a problem.

Santiago de Cuba-Parque Cesped, clean park

Thirdly, what I did not expect was the yachts and resorts lining the bay from Jamaica. Nor the oil refinery, the constant application of new paint on the facades, and recent construction of homes by the government to replace those that were destroyed by the hurricane. I also did not expect the quiet whispering of men on the street, “hola, mami” as opposed to the invasive cat-calling of Havana.

So whoever said Santiago de Cuba was a horrible place had obviously never been to Santiago. It rivals Havana any day.

Santiago de Cuba-Painting of two people

While I came to Santiago searching for a deeper experience in the Afro-Cuban culture, I did not get that experience. I am going to blame it on being accompanied by a White Cuban male. This was the first time I had seen how apparent colorism existed in Cuba. Consistently I heard Cubans refer to Santiago as “black and dark.” I was thoroughly confused because I didn’t notice any more Afro-Cubans than any other city I had been in. Cubans everywhere are SO mixed and come in every color from their hair to their eyes to their skin.

It is apparent that Afro-Cubans live a different life compared to those of their whiter counterparts. As I was hearing conversations on different parts of the island, the people of Santiago were associated with negative connotations like “criminals” “bad” “dangerous.” I didn’t experience that AT ALL. Quiet the opposite.

I found a deeper look at Cuban’s class system in this blog post. But basically, the only way to come out of poverty as a Cuban is if you have family abroad to send you money (rich Cubans who escaped the revolution were mostly White), or if you’re part of an elite group of government officials, neither of which the Afro-Cuban population can really benefit from. This leaves Afro-Cubans largely marginalized and unrepresented in society by default. But I’m honestly no expert on the matter and it’s best to do your own research and hear the perspective from the mouth of an Afro-Cuban LIVING IN CUBA.

Santiago de Cuba-painting of woman on Malecon with palm tree

I think the best part of Santiago was that I saw about four foreigners as opposed to the invasion of basic bitches in Havana. Seriously, get me the fuck away from those people. In Santiago, the only tourists I saw were other Cubans who married foreigners and were just coming to visit with their families from Italy, Spain, etc.

Santiago is so packed with history and meaning, it has given me a newfound admiration for Fidel and the struggle for Cuba to be an independent and peaceful nation. Previously, I did not understand a lot of the laws put into place and thought them to be a bit oppressive.

For example: Cuban people can be fined for walking next to a foreigner. I learned this was due to prostitution being so rampant during the time of Batista, that the Communist regime sought to Cubans from selling their bodies.

Another example:  Only Cubans are allowed to own property and cannot participate in foreign investment. I learned this was due to Cuba being 70% owned by foreign investors who exploited not only the land but also the Cuban people.

These things made me realize that these rules weren’t in place to oppress, but actually to protect them from what had happened before. I think it is really easy to forget the atrocities committed when you’re so far removed, hence the propaganda at every corner. These reminders allow people to never forget that these are all safe guards against Cuba fading back to the enslaved society it used to be.

Santiago de Cuba-blue Correo post office

Since the revolution, Cuba has been closed off to most of the world, leaving most of the information on the matter to be written from the perspective of (rich-er) (white-r) Cubans who escaped the revolution, or from foreigners who visited and were no longer welcome. We’ve only heard the perspective of those who have not benefited from the revolution.

Santiago de Cuba is a chance to learn from those who did.

Why I Now Support Communism

Before critiquing the revolution, think about which side you were on before invalidating the experiences of those who are flourishing in Cuba right now. Think about the propaganda being fed to us and the rest of the world since the JFK era to feed political agendas.

Fidel did what no one else could: give Cuba back to its people.

Before, it had just been repeatedly conquered by foreigners since the 1500s, and now Cuba is as free as it has ever been under Communism. While I believe that the current regime has to progress, Communism has allowed the largest island in the Caribbean to prosper independently in a way that no other island has been able to do. It’s just a fact that we can’t deny. I’m not saying Communism works for everyone, but in this case, for these people, in this situation, and with this leader, it did.

However, while I believe Communism was an ideal solution to get Cuba back on its feet. I also think this model could be applied to a lot of countries who need a restart and fully support the idea of Communism. But as peace and people progress, so should a country’s policies and practice.

Regarding Fidel, if you think Fidel is a monster, reflect on your current president and think about which politician that isn’t.

With that said, Fidel is far from a perfect human being. And nothing validates the atrocities he committed causing so many families to flee, be separated, and people to lose their lives.

Santiago de Cuba-woman standing in front of coral wall

To really know Cuba, you must go to it’s birthplace. Santiago de Cuba is a must-see.


How To Get To Cuba As An American

In order to legally travel to Cuba from America, you’ll need to meet one of the requirements for the 12 visas. You can read about them here. Basically, to go to Cuba legally, follow these four steps:

  1. Check Support Of The Cuban People
  2. Stay in casa particulares and avoid hotels
  3. Document your itinerary while there
  4. Save your documentation for 5 years, The End.
Santiago de Cuba-2 paltes of food with rice, cucumbers, and chicken with a straw hat
This entire meal was 2CUC…for both plates.

If you still don’t believe me, play it safe and go with a REGISTERED, LICENSED tour group. My favorite being Like A Cuban. I met the owner on my first trip to Havana. She usually only takes VIP clients and for that does not have a website. She has allowed me to attach her email heer for followers of this publication. She has the cheapest and most unique itinerary I’ve ever seen. Contact Rita at rita@likeacuban.com

To bypass all of this, you can also go to Cuba from a third party country such as Jamaica, Canada, Haiti, or Mexico; but as an American, this is also technically illegal.

BEFORE COMING To Santiago De Cuba

Change all American dollars to Euros, there will be no ATMs that take American credit card. You will be charged a 10% conversion fee if you bring American dollars. U.S.- issued credit and debit cards do not work in Cuba so travelers should plan to bring enough cash with them to cover all the expenses they might incur during their trip.

Santiago de Cuba-green and blue Classic Cars

Required Visa For Americans Coming To Cuba

For Americans, a visa is required to enter into Cuba.

Leaving from America

To obtain a visa, when you check in for your flight, the person at the counter will prompt you to buy a visa. Then at the boarding gate, you fill out the forms needed. They won’t let you board without the visa, so don’t worry, they will get you one. The cost varies from $50-100 depending on the airline.

Leaving from a 3rd party country

When you fly through Cancun, DF, or any flight to Cuba from another country, give yourself three hours to be able to check-in. Cubans take forever to check-in and they also have a ridiculous amount of cargo since a lot of them are bringing over electronics and necessities for their families that can’t afford it back home. As you stand in line to check into your flight, there is a person handing out visas for $12-20 USD depending on the exchange rate. Once landing in the Cancun airport, remember you will need to take a taxi to the terminal that offers Cuba flights. Allow 20 minutes for this and be prepared to pay in Mexican pesos or more in USD. In DF airport, you will have to stand in line for the visa counter and then the line to check in for your flight so again, give yourself some time.

Santiago de Cuba-woman standing in front of green door

The Language and What To Pack

Cubans talk very fast, slur all of their words together, and have a distinct accent that makes it extremely hard to understand even if you are a Spanish speaker. I call it Cubañol. So if you don’t understand them, you’re not alone.

You should pack sunscreen. I can’t emphasize it enough. Also, sunglasses. I don’t recommend jeans. Linens, skirts, shorts, dresses, anything cotton to let your private parts breathe unless you just enjoy feeling musty down there. NEVER UNDERESTIMATE THE HEAT. Cubans are not conservative in their dress at all, so feel free to do you, boo. But don’t bring heels cause there are holes in the streets everywhere.

Santiago de Cuba-woman cooking in front of a turqouise wall with cacti in the back

To read about more cities in The Orient such as Holguin, Gaurdalavaca, Gibara, and Baracoa click here.

To read about Havana, Vinales, Varadero, and Trinidad click here.

To read about my experience in Cuba during the death of Fidel click here.

To read about having a Cuban papi click here.

About The Author

Kiona is not a Cuban nor an expert on Cuba. Her education has only been through direct contact through travel and verifying facts with the Internet. She acknowledges her lack in formal education on the dynamics of Cuban history and politics.

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